You have no Windows disk connected, I hope? And you have a 1TB Home Media?
8 0 976762584 sda
This is a raw 1TB disk, but no partitions are recognized. The good news is that the disk is recognized, so it's not dead (well, not completely). The bad news is that the partition table is not recognized, so at least a part of the contents is screwed up.
This is why no icons are shown, a raw disk cannot be mounted.
If your data is really valuable, this should be the moment to stop tinkering with the disk, and hire a professional data recovery company. This will cost you several hundreds of euro's, at least.
If you don't want that, we'll continue.
There are several possibilities now. The disk is bad, and the partition table is lost by a hardware failure. In that case you should create a low-level copy to another disk, on which you can start your recovery.
Or the disk is fine, and the partition table is screwed up by a software failure, in that case you can recover the files from this disk.
A way to see if the disk is bad is the use of smartctl.
In a terminal type
sudo smartctl --health /dev/sda
If that gives a 'unknown command' error, first install smartmontools (the PC needs internet access):
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install smartmontools
If smartctrl gives a failed, or something like that, I recommend you to first create a low-level backup. To do so you need a 2nd disk, which has at least the same size. In practice this means a 1.5TB disk. All contents will be destroyed, when copying. A low-level backup can last several days, depending on the damage of the disk. So you also need to have a computer available for that time.
If smartctl is content about your disk, you can either use PhotoRec
to recover your files from the raw disk, or rearrange the partition table. Rearranging the partition table can be done by following this tutorial
, steps 1 (Connecting the disk) to 6 (Change data partition size). Do *not* continue with the following steps.